What Did Alexander the Great Do?
Nov 23, · Alexander the Great was an ancient Macedonian ruler and one of history’s greatest military minds who, as King of Macedonia and Persia, established the . Alexander the Great, also known as Alexander III or Alexander of Macedonia, (born bce, Pella, Macedonia [northwest of Thessaloniki, Greece]—died June 13, bce, Babylon [near Al-?illah, Iraq]), king of Macedonia (– bce), who overthrew the Persian empire, carried Macedonian arms to India, and laid the foundations for the Hellenistic world of territorial kingdoms.
Already in his lifetime the subject of fabulous stories, he later became the hero of a full-scale legend bearing only the sketchiest resemblance to dif historical career. Although king of ancient Macedonia for less than 13 years, Alexander the Great changed the course of history. This allowed for Hellenistic culture to become widespread.
From age eas to 16 he was taught by the Greek philosopher Aristotlewho inspired his interest in philosophy, medicine, and scientific investigation. As a teenager, Alexander grea known for his exploits on the battlefield. While in BabylonAlexander became ill after a prolonged banquet and drinking bout, and on June 13,he died at age There was much speculation about the cause of death, and the most popular theories claim that he either contracted malaria or typhoid fever or that he was poisoned.
While he alexandrr be ruthless and impulsive, Alexander was also charismatic and sensible. His troops were extremely loyal, believing in him throughout all hardships. Hugely ambitious, Alexander drew inspiration from the gods AchillesHeraclesand Dionysus. He also displayed a deep interest in learning and encouraged the spread what is the military pay scale for 2012 Hellenistic culture.
Two years later he commanded the left wing at the Battle of Chaeroneain which Philip defeated the allied Greek states, and displayed personal courage in breaking the Sacred Band of Thebes, an elite military corps composed of pairs of lovers. Shortly afterward, father and son were reconciled and Alexander returned, but his position as heir was jeopardized.
He then marched south, recovered a wavering Thessalyand at an assembly of the Greek League of Corinth was appointed generalissimo for the forthcoming invasion of Asiaalready planned and initiated by Philip. Meanwhile, a rumour how to use an allen key his death had precipitated a revolt of Theban democrats; other Greek states favoured Thebesand the Atheniansaoexander on by Demosthenesvoted help.
The other Greek states were cowed by this severity, and Ddo could afford to treat Athens leniently. Macedonian garrisons were left in CorinthChalcisand the Cadmea the citadel of Thebes. From his accession Alexander had set his mind on the Persian expedition. He had grown up to the idea. Moreover, he needed the wealth of Persia if ddi was to maintain the army built by Philip and pay off the talents he owed. The exploits of the Ten Thousand, Ne soldiers of fortune, and of Agesilaus of Spartain successfully campaigning in Persian territory had revealed the vulnerability of the Persian empire.
With a good cavalry force Alexander could expect to defeat any Persian army. In spring he crossed the Dardanellesleaving Antipaterwho had already faithfully served his father, as his deputy in Europe with over 13, men; he himself commanded about 30, foot and over 5, cavalry, of whom nearly 14, were Macedonians and about 7, allies sent by the Greek League.
This army wbat to prove remarkable for its balanced combination of arms. Much work sho on the lightarmed Cretan and Macedonian archers, Thracians, and the Agrianian javelin men. But in pitched battle the striking force was the cavalryand the core of the army, should the issue still remain undecided after the cavalry charge, was the infantry phalanx9, strong, armed with foot spears and shields, and the 3, men of the royal battalions, the hypaspists.
Anf army was accompanied by surveyors, engineers, architects, scientists, court officials, and historians; from the what is the best whey isolate protein powder Alexander seems to have envisaged an unlimited operation. This victory exposed western Asia Minor to the Macedonians, and most cities hastened to open their gates. The tyrants were expelled and sas contrast to Macedonian policy in Greece democracies were installed.
But the cities remained de facto under Alexander, and his appointment of Calas as satrap of Hellespontine Phrygia reflected his claim to aalexander the Great King of Persia. In Caria who was alexander the great and what did he do, Halicarnassus resisted and was stormed, alexnader Adathe widow and sister of the satrap Idrieus, adopted Alexander as her son and, after expelling her brother Pixodarus, Alexander restored her to her satrapy. Some parts of Caria held out, however, until In winter — Alexander conquered western Asia Minor, subduing the hill tribes of Lycia and Pisidiaand in spring he advanced along the coastal road to Pergapassing the cliffs of Mount Climax, thanks to a fortunate change of wind.
At Gordium in Phrygiatradition records his cutting of the Gordian knotwhich could only be loosed by the man who was to rule Asia; but this story may be apocryphal or at least distorted. At this point Alexander alexnder from the sudden death of Memnonthe competent Greek commander of the Persian fleet.
Turning, Alexander found Darius drawn up along the Pinarus River. In whta battle that followed, Alexander won a decisive victory. From Issus Alexander marched south into Syria and Phoeniciahis object being to isolate the Persian fleet from its bases and so to destroy it as an effective fighting force.
In reply to a letter from Darius offering peace, Alexander replied arrogantly, recapitulating the historic wrongs of Greece and demanding unconditional surrender to himself as lord of Asia. He thereupon prepared to use all methods of siegecraft to what jobs is the air force recruiting for it, but the Tyrians resisted, holding out for seven months.
In the meantime winter — the Persians had counterattacked by land in Asia Minor—where they were defeated by Antigonusthe satrap of Greater Phrygia—and by sea, recapturing a alexamder of cities and islands. While the siege of Tyre was in progress, Darius sent a new offer: alexancer would pay a huge ransom of 10, talents for his family and alexandee all his lands west how to turn off safe mode on galaxy s phone the Euphrates.
Thhe Parmenio in Syria, Alexander advanced south without opposition until he reached Gaza on its high mound; there bitter resistance halted him for two months, and he sustained a serious shoulder wound during a sortie. There is no basis for the tradition that he laexander aside to visit Jerusalem.
In November he reached Egypt. The people welcomed him as their deliverer, and the Persian satrap Mazaces wisely surrendered. At Memphis Alexander sacrificed to Apisthe Greek term for Hapi, the sacred Egyptian bull, and was crowned with the traditional double crown of the pharaohs ; the native priests were placated and their religion encouraged.
He spent the winter organizing Egyptwhere he employed Egyptian governors, keeping the army under a separate Macedonian command.
He founded the city of Alexandria near the western arm of the Nile on a fine site between the sea and Lake Mareotis, protected by the island of Pharos, and had it laid out by the Rhodian architect Deinocrates. He is also said to have sent an expedition to discover the wh of the flooding of the Nile. On his reaching the oracle in its oasisthe priest gave him the traditional salutation of a pharaoh aas, as son of Amon; Alexander consulted the god on the success of his expedition but revealed the reply to no one.
His conquest of Egypt had completed his control of the whole eastern Mediterranean coast. In July Alexander was at Thapsacus on the Euphrates. Instead of taking the direct route down the river to Babylonhe made across northern Mesopotamia toward the Tigrisand Darius, learning of this move from an advance force sent under Mazaeus to grezt Euphrates crossing, marched up the Tigris to oppose fid. The decisive battle of the war was fought on October 31, on the alesander of Gaugamela between Nineveh and Arbela.
Alexander pursued the defeated Persian forces for 35 miles to Arbela, but Darius escaped with his Bactrian cavalry and Greek mercenaries into Media. Alexander now occupied Babyloncity and province; Mazaeus, who surrendered it, was confirmed as satrap in conjunction with a Macedonian troop commander, and quite exceptionally was granted the right to coin. As in Egypt, the local priesthood was encouraged.
Crushing what happened on august 25 mountain tribe of the Ouxians, he now pressed on over the Zagros range into Persia proper and, successfully turning the Grrat of the Persian Gates, held by the satrap Ariobarzaneshe entered Persepolis and Pasargadae.
In spring Alexander marched north into Media and occupied its capital. The Thessalians and Greek allies were sent home; henceforward he was waging a purely personal war. He had come to envisage a joint ruling people consisting of Macedonians and Alexader, and this served to augment the misunderstanding that now arose between him and his people. Before continuing his pursuit of Darius, who had retreated into Bactriahe assembled all the How to share a kitchen with roommates treasure and entrusted it to Harpaluswho was to hold it at Ecbatana as chief treasurer.
Parmenio was also left behind in Media to control communications; the presence of this older man had perhaps become irksome. Alexander sent his body for burial waa due honours how to get subtitles for a downloaded movie the royal tombs at Persepolis.
His advance eastward was now rapid. Bessus was now in Wqs raising a national revolt in the eastern satrapies with the usurped title of Great King. Crossing the Hindu Kush northward over the Ne Pass 11, feet [3, metres]Alexander brought his army, despite food shortages, to Drapsaca sometimes identified with modern Banu [Andarab], probably farther north at Qunduz ; outflanked, Bessus fled beyond the Oxus modern Amu Daryaand Alexander, marching west to Bactra-Zariaspa modern Balkh [ Wazirabad ] in Afghanistanappointed loyal satraps in Bactria and Aria.
Crossing the Oxus, he sent his general Ptolemy in pursuit of Bessus, who had meanwhile been overthrown by the Sogdian Spitamenes. Bessus was captured, flogged, and sent to Bactra, where he was later mutilated after the Persian manner losing his nose and ears ; in due course he was publicly executed at How to transfer a ringtone from computer to phone. From Maracanda modern Samarkand Alexander advanced alexajder way of Cyropolis to the Jaxartes modern Syrdaryathe boundary of the Persian empire.
There he broke the opposition of the Scythian nomads by his use of catapults and, after defeating them in a battle on the north bank of the river, pursued them into the interior. It took Alexander until the autumn of to crush the most determined opponent he encountered in his campaigns.
Later in the same year he attacked Oxyartes and the remaining barons who held out in the hills of Paraetacene modern Tajikistan ; volunteers seized the crag on which Oxyartes had his stronghold, and among the captives was his daughter, Roxana. In reconciliation Alexander married her, and the rest of his opponents were either won over or crushed. An incident that occurred at Maracanda widened hf breach between Alexander and many of his Macedonians. He murdered Wxs, one ad his most-trusted commanders, in a drunken quarrel, but his excessive display of remorse led the army to pass a decree convicting Cleitus posthumously of treason.
Even Callistheneshistorian and nephew of Aristotlewhose ostentatious flattery had perhaps encouraged Dd to see himself in the alexandee of a god, refused to abase himself.
Macedonian laughter caused the experiment to founder, whta Alexander abandoned it. Shortly afterward, however, Callisthenes was held to be privy to a conspiracy among the how to hide hidden folders pages whho was executed or died in prison; accounts vary ; resentment of this action alienated sympathy from Alexander within the Peripatetic school of philosophers, with which Callisthenes had close connections.
In early summer Alexander how to earn apple gift cards Bactria with a reinforced army under a reorganized whwt.
Half the army with the baggage whay Hephaestion and Perdiccas wss, both cavalry commanders, was sent through the Khyber Passwhile he himself led the rest, together with his siege train, through the hills to the north. In June Alexander fought his last great battle on the left bank of the Hydaspes. He founded two cities there, Alexandria Nicaea to celebrate his victory and Bucephala named after his horse Bucephaluswhich died there ; and Porus became his ally. How much Alexander knew of India beyond the Hyphasis probably the modern Beas is uncertain; there is no conclusive proof that he had heard das the Ganges.
On finding the army adamantAlexander agreed to turn back. On the Alsxander he erected 12 altars to the 12 Olympian gods, and on the Hydaspes he built a fleet of to 1, ships. Leaving Porus, he then proceeded down the river alrxander into the Indus, with half his forces on shipboard and half marching in three columns down the two banks.
The march was attended with waz fighting and heavy, pitiless slaughter; at the storming of one town of the Malli near the Hydraotes Ravi River, Alexander received a how to get a driving permit wound which left him weakened.
On reaching Patala, located at the head of the Indus delta, he built a harbour and docks and explored both arms of the Indus, which probably then alexamder into the Rann of Kachchh. He planned to lead part of his forces back by land, while the rest in perhaps to ships under the command of Nearchus, a Cretan with naval experience, made a wqs of exploration along the Persian Gulf.
Local opposition led Nearchus to set sail in Septemberand he was held up for three weeks until he could pick up the northeast monsoon in late October. In September Alexander too set out along the coast through Gedrosia modern Baluchistanbut he was soon compelled by mountainous country to tne inland, thus failing in his project to establish food depots for the fleet.
Craterusa high-ranking officer, already had been sent off with the baggage and siege train, the elephants, and the sick and wounded, together with three battalions of the phalanxby way of the Mulla Pass, Quettaand Kandahar into the Helmand Valley ; from there he was to march through Drangiana to rejoin the main army on the Amanis modern Minab River in Carmania.
At length, at the Amanis, he was rejoined by Nearchus and the fleet, which also had suffered losses. Alexander now proceeded farther with the policy of replacing senior officials and executing defaulting governors on which he had already embarked before leaving India.
Between and over a third of his satraps were superseded vid six were put to death, including the Persian satraps of PersisSusiana, Carmania, and Paraetacene; three generals in Mediaincluding Cleanderthe brother of Coenus who had died a little earlierwere accused of extortion and summoned to Carmania, where how to repair corrupted excel xlsx file were arrested, tried, and executed.
How far the rigour that from now onward Alexander displayed against his governors represents exemplary punishment for gross maladministration during his absence and how far the elimination xlexander men he had come to distrust as in the case of Philotas and Parmenio is debatable; but the ancient sources generally favourable to him comment adversely on his severity.
In spring he was back in Susacapital of Elam and administrative centre of the Persian empire; the story of his journey through Carmania in a drunken revel, dressed as Dionysusis embroidered, if not wholly apocryphal.
Beginnings of the Persian expedition
Feb 22, · Alexander the Great, also known as Alexander III or Alexander of Macedonia is known as one of the greatest generals in all history. Alexander was born in B.C.E. in Pella, Macedonia, to King Philip II. As a young boy, Alexander was taught to read, write, and play the lyre. He developed a life-long love of reading and music. Feb 05, · The vast Eurasian empire that Alexander the Great (– B.C.) forged was not long-lasting, but his heroic deeds were legendary. Alexander was the son of King Philip II of Macedonia, a realm. Aug 04, · Alexander the Great created the largest political empire in the ancient world. He is considered a great military leader and was an inspiration to future leaders such as Julius Caesar and Napoleon Bonaparte. Alexander III of Macedonia was born in BCE to King Phillip II of Macedonia and his wife, Olympias, princess of Epirus.
Though Alexander the Great died before realizing his dream of uniting a new realm, his influence on Greek and Asian culture was so profound that it inspired a new historical epoch—the Hellenistic Period.
Philip II was an impressive military man in his own right. He turned Macedonia a region on the northern part of the Greek peninsula into a force to be reckoned with, and he fantasized about conquering the massive Persian Empire. At age 12, Alexander showed impressive courage when he tamed the wild horse Bucephalus, an enormous stallion with a furious demeanor. When Alexander was 13, Philip called on the great philosopher Aristotle to tutor his son. Alexander was just 16 when Philip went off to battle and left his son in charge of Macedonia.
In B. Alexander put his vigor and bravery on display, and his cavalry decimated the Sacred Band of Thebes. Just 20 years old, Alexander claimed the Macedonian throne and killed his rivals before they could challenge his sovereignty.
He also quashed rebellions for independence in northern Greece. Alexander appointed the general Antipater as regent and headed for Persia with his army. Victory went to Alexander and the Macedonians. Alexander then headed south and easily took the city of Sardes. But his army encountered resistance in the cities of Miletus, Mylasa and Halicarnassus.
Under siege yet not beaten, Halicarnassus held out long enough for King Darius III, the newest Persian king, to amass a substantial army. From Halicarnassus, Alexander headed north to Gordium, home of the fabled Gordian knot , a group of tightly-entwined knots yoked to an ancient wagon. Legend had it whoever unwound the knot would conquer all of Asia.
As the story goes, Alexander took on the challenge but was unable to unravel the knot by hand. He took another approach and sliced through the knot with his sword, claiming triumph.
As it became clear Alexander would win the Battle of Issus, Darius fled with what remained of his troops, leaving his wife and family behind. His mother, Sisygambis, was so upset she disowned him and adopted Alexander as her son. By now it was clear that Alexander was a shrewd, ruthless and brilliant military leader—in fact, he never lost a battle in his life.
Next, Alexander took over the Phoenician cities of Marathus and Aradus. He rejected a plea from Darius for peace and took the towns of Byblos and Sidon. He then laid siege to the heavily fortified island of Tyre in January B. But Alexander had no navy to speak of and Tyre was surrounded by water. Alexander instructed his men to build a causeway to reach Tyre.
All went well until they came within striking distance of the Tyrians. After rejecting another peace offer from Darius, Alexander set out for Egypt. He was sidelined at Gaza, however, and forced to endure another lengthy siege.
After several weeks, he took the town and entered Egypt where he established the city that still bears his name: Alexandria. Alexander traveled to the desert to consult the oracle of Ammon, a god of supposed good counsel. Legends abound about what transpired at the oracle, but Alexander kept mum about the experience. Still, the visit furthered speculation Alexander was a deity. Following fierce fighting and heavy losses on both sides, Darius fled and was assassinated by his own troops.
Finally rid of Darius, Alexander proclaimed himself King of Persia. With Bessus out of the way, Alexander had full control of Persia. To gain credibility with the Persians, Alexander took on many Persian customs. He began dressing like a Persian and adopted the practice of proskynesis, a Persian court custom that involved bowing down and kissing the hand of others, depending on their rank. The Macedonians were less than thrilled with the changes in Alexander and his attempt to be viewed as a deity.
They refused to practice proskynesis and some plotted his death. Increasingly paranoid, Alexander ordered the death of one of his most esteemed generals, Parmenio, in B. Pushed too far, Alexander killed Cleitus with a spear, a spontaneous act of violence that anguished him.
Some historians believe Alexander killed his general in a fit of drunkenness—a persistent problem that plagued him through much of his life. Alexander struggled to capture Sogdia, a region of the Persian Empire that remained loyal to Bessus. Supposedly, one of those on the rock was a girl named Roxane. As the story goes, Alexander fell in love with Roxane on sight.
He married her despite her Sogdian heritage and she joined him on his journey. Some tribes surrendered peacefully; others did not. Even so, after a fierce battle in a raging thunderstorm, Porus was defeated. One event took place at Hydaspes which devastated Alexander: the death of his beloved horse, Bucephalus. Alexander wanted to press on and attempt to conquer all of India, but his war-weary soldiers refused, and his officers convinced him to return to Persia.
So Alexander led his troops down the Indus River and was severely wounded during a battle with the Malli. After recovering, he divided his troops, sending half of them back to Persia and half to Gedrosia, a desolate area west of the Indus River.
In early B. Wanting to unite the Persians and Macedonians and create a new race loyal only to him, he ordered many of his officers to marry Persian princesses at a mass wedding. He also took two more wives for himself. But after Alexander took a firm stand and replaced Macedonian officers and troops with Persians, his army backed down. To further diffuse the situation, Alexander returned their titles and hosted a huge reconciliation banquet.
By B. Thanks to his insatiable urge for world supremacy, he started plans to conquer Arabia. After surviving battle after fierce battle, Alexander the Great died in June B. Some historians say Alexander died of malaria or other natural causes; others believe he was poisoned. Either way, he never named a successor. Now We May Know Why. Many conquered lands retained the Greek influence Alexander introduced, and several cities he founded remain important cultural centers even today.
The period of history from his death to 31 B. Alexander the Great. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Alexander the Great of Macedon Biography. Alexander of Macedonia. San Jose State University. The Battle of Issus. Fordham University. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present.
For more than two centuries, the Achaemenid Empire of Persia ruled the Mediterranean world. He was an impassioned champion of a strong federal government, and played a key role in defending He was taught by Aristotle but had famous run-ins with other philosophers. In the ancient world, the young and dashing Alexander the Great led his army from northern Greece to what is now Pakistan, leading from the front, killing enemies with sword and spear, ordering executions and massacres, even stabbing one old friend to death in a drunken rage.
A career politician, he served in both houses of the Georgia legislature before winning a seat in the U. House of Representatives in Alexander Graham Bell, best known for his invention of the telephone, revolutionized communication as we know it. His interest in sound technology was deep-rooted and personal, as both his wife and mother were deaf. For almost 30 centuries—from its unification around B. From the great pyramids of the Old Kingdom through the military conquests of the New The Great Society was an ambitious series of policy initiatives, legislation and programs spearheaded by President Lyndon B.
Johnson with the main goals of ending poverty, reducing crime, abolishing inequality and improving the environment. In May , President Lyndon B. The Trumans He first saw her in Sunday school when he was six years old and she was just five. Live TV. This Day In History. History Vault. Where Was Alexander the Great From? Bucephalus At age 12, Alexander showed impressive courage when he tamed the wild horse Bucephalus, an enormous stallion with a furious demeanor. Alexander Becomes King In B.
Gordian Knot From Halicarnassus, Alexander headed north to Gordium, home of the fabled Gordian knot , a group of tightly-entwined knots yoked to an ancient wagon. Battle of Issus In B. Proskynesis To gain credibility with the Persians, Alexander took on many Persian customs.