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Properties of Sodium Chloride It is easily soluble in water and partially soluble or insoluble in other liquids. They are white crystals which do not have an odour but possess a taste. In its aqueous state NaCl acts as a good conductor of electricity due to the free movement of the ions. It has a. 17 rows · Sodium Chloride is a metal halide composed of sodium and chloride with sodium and chloride.
Sodium chloride is one of the most well-known and widely used chemicals, also known as table salt. Formula and structure: The chemical formula of sodium chloride is NaCl and its molar mass is Occurrence: Sodium chloride is present in the sea and ocean waters, giving them their saltiness.
It is also found as the mineral halite or rock salt. Preparation: Salt is produced on large scales by evaporation of sea water or the salt water brine from salt lakes and brine wells. As seawater contains several other salts of calcium, magnesium and other elementsthe evaporation process is carried out carefully so how to get a hotspot the different salts precipitate out at different times based on their solubility.
Another major production method is by mining the rock salt reserves. Physical properties: Sodium chloride is a white crystalline solid with a density of 2. It is also available as aqueous solutions of different concentrations, called saline solutions. Chemical properties: Sodium chloride is readily soluble in water and other polar solvents.
It is a stable solid. It only decomposes at high temperatures to give toxic fumes of hydrochloric acid HCl and disodium oxide Na 2 O. Uses: Sodium chloride is best known as table salt and is used widely in the food industry for flavoring and preservation. It is also used in the production of many important chemicals, including sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, how to draw sonamy kissing soda, hydrochloric acid, etc.
It also has applications in oil refineries, textiles industry, paper and pulp industry, fire-retardants, rubber industry and in road constructions. Another important use is the de-icing of roads and sidewalks in cold and snowy regions. Saline solutions are used for many medical purposes too. High consumption of salt over the long term can cause imbalance of electrolytes in the body. Swallowing high concentrations of it can cause vomiting, nausea, diarrhea and dehydration. It can also irritate the eyes and cause eye damage at high concentrations.
Toggle navigation. Sodium chloride Formula Sodium chloride is one of the most well-known and widely used chemicals, also known as table salt.
Aug 05, · Sodium chloride is composed of approximately 60 percent chloride and 40 percent sodium elements. Commonly known as table salt, it is a white-colored or transparent water-soluble crystalline solid with the chemical symbol NaCl. Sodium chloride boils at degrees Celsius and melts at degrees Celsius. It is salty-tasting and corrosive to base metals. Sep 10, · The chemical name for common salt is sodium chloride. Sodium is an electrolyte that controls how much water the body has in it. Sodium also plays a part in muscle contractions and nerve impulses. Sodium chloride is used to treat or avoid dehydration, excessive sweating or other causes of sodium euro-caspian.comg Point: 1, °C. Mar 26, · Physical Properties of NaCl Sodium chloride, a white crystalline solid, contains a density of g/mL, the melting point of °C, and the boiling point is about 1, °C. It is also available as aqueous solutions with different concentrations, which are known as saline solutions. Chemical Properties of NaCl.
With molar masses of Sodium chloride is the salt most responsible for the salinity of seawater and of the extracellular fluid of many multicellular organisms. In its edible form of table salt , it is commonly used as a condiment and food preservative. Large quantities of sodium chloride are used in many industrial processes, and it is a major source of sodium and chlorine compounds used as feedstocks for further chemical syntheses.
A second major application of sodium chloride is de-icing of roadways in sub-freezing weather. In addition to the familiar domestic uses of salt, more dominant applications of the approximately million tonnes per year production data include chemicals and de-icing. Salt is used, directly or indirectly, in the production of many chemicals, which consume most of the world's production.
It is the starting point for the chloralkali process , the industrial process to produce chlorine and sodium hydroxide , according to the chemical equation. This electrolysis is conducted in either a mercury cell, a diaphragm cell, or a membrane cell. Each of those uses a different method to separate the chlorine from the sodium hydroxide. Other technologies are under development due to the high energy consumption of the electrolysis, whereby small improvements in the efficiency can have large economic paybacks.
Some applications of chlorine include PVC , disinfectants, and solvents. Sodium hydroxide enables industries that produce paper, soap, and aluminium. Sodium chloride is used in the Solvay process to produce sodium carbonate and calcium chloride.
Sodium carbonate, in turn, is used to produce glass , sodium bicarbonate , and dyes , as well as a myriad of other chemicals. In the Mannheim process and in the Hargreaves process , sodium chloride is used for the production of sodium sulfate and hydrochloric acid. The standard is named ASTM E and is the standard test methods for chemical analysis of sodium chloride. These methods listed provide procedures for analyzing sodium chloride to determine whether it is suitable for its intended use and application.
Sodium chloride is heavily used, so even relatively minor applications can consume massive quantities. In oil and gas exploration, salt is an important component of drilling fluids in well drilling. It is used to flocculate and increase the density of the drilling fluid to overcome high downwell gas pressures. Whenever a drill hits a salt formation, salt is added to the drilling fluid to saturate the solution in order to minimize the dissolution within the salt stratum. In textiles and dyeing, salt is used as a brine rinse to separate organic contaminants, to promote "salting out" of dyestuff precipitates, and to blend with concentrated dyes to standardize [ clarification needed ] them.
One of its main roles is to provide the positive ion charge to promote the absorption of negatively charged ions of dyes. It is also used in processing aluminium , beryllium , copper , steel and vanadium. In the pulp and paper industry , salt is used to bleach wood pulp. It also is used to make sodium chlorate , which is added along with sulfuric acid and water to manufacture chlorine dioxide , an excellent oxygen-based bleaching chemical.
The chlorine dioxide process, which originated in Germany after World War I, is becoming more popular because of environmental pressures to reduce or eliminate chlorinated bleaching compounds. In tanning and leather treatment, salt is added to animal hides to inhibit microbial activity on the underside of the hides and to attract moisture back into the hides.
In rubber manufacture, salt is used to make buna , neoprene and white rubber types. Salt brine and sulfuric acid are used to coagulate an emulsified latex made from chlorinated butadiene. Salt also is added to secure the soil and to provide firmness to the foundation on which highways are built. The salt acts to minimize the effects of shifting caused in the subsurface by changes in humidity and traffic load.
Sodium chloride is sometimes used as a cheap and safe desiccant because of its hygroscopic properties, making salting an effective method of food preservation historically; the salt draws water out of bacteria through osmotic pressure , keeping it from reproducing, a major source of food spoilage.
Even though more effective desiccants are available, few are safe for humans to ingest. Hard water contains calcium and magnesium ions that interfere with action of soap and contribute to the buildup of a scale or film of alkaline mineral deposits in household and industrial equipment and pipes.
Commercial and residential water-softening units use ion-exchange resins to remove the offending ions that cause the hardness. These resins are generated and regenerated using sodium chloride. The second major application of salt is for de-icing and anti-icing of roads, both in grit bins and spread by winter service vehicles. In anticipation of snowfall, roads are optimally "anti-iced" with brine concentrated solution of salt in water , which prevents bonding between the snow-ice and the road surface.
This procedure obviates the heavy use of salt after the snowfall. Salt for de-icing in the United Kingdom predominantly comes from a single mine in Winsford in Cheshire. In recent years this additive has also been used in table salt. Other additives had been used in road salt to reduce the total costs.
Because it stayed on the road longer, the treatment did not have to be repeated several times, saving time and money. Road salt ends up in fresh-water bodies and could harm aquatic plants and animals by disrupting their osmoregulation ability. Naval authorities and ship builders monitor the salt concentrations on surfaces during construction. Maximal salt concentrations on surfaces are dependent on the authority and application.
These measurements are done by means of a Bresle test. Salinization increasing salinity, aka freshwater salinization syndrome and subsequent increased metal leaching is an ongoing problem throughout North America and European fresh waterways. In highway de-icing, salt has been associated with corrosion of bridge decks, motor vehicles, reinforcement bar and wire, and unprotected steel structures used in road construction.
Surface runoff, vehicle spraying, and windblown actions also affect soil, roadside vegetation, and local surface water and groundwater supplies. Although evidence of environmental loading of salt has been found during peak usage, the spring rains and thaws usually dilute the concentrations of sodium in the area where salt was applied. Some agencies are substituting beer, molasses, and beet juice instead of road salt. Many microorganisms cannot live in a salty environment: water is drawn out of their cells by osmosis.
For this reason salt is used to preserve some foods, such as bacon, fish, or cabbage. Salt is added to food, either by the food producer or by the consumer, as a flavor enhancer, preservative, binder, fermentation -control additive, texture-control agent and color developer. The salt consumption in the food industry is subdivided, in descending order of consumption, into other food processing, meat packers, canning, baking, dairy and grain mill products.
Salt is added to promote color development in bacon, ham and other processed meat products. As a preservative, salt inhibits the growth of bacteria. Salt acts as a binder in sausages to form a binding gel made up of meat, fat, and moisture. Salt also acts as a flavor enhancer and as a tenderizer. In many dairy industries, salt is added to cheese as a color-, fermentation-, and texture-control agent. The dairy subsector includes companies that manufacture creamery butter, condensed and evaporated milk, frozen desserts, ice cream, natural and processed cheese, and specialty dairy products.
In canning, salt is primarily added as a flavor enhancer and preservative. It also is used as a carrier for other ingredients, dehydrating agent, enzyme inhibitor and tenderizer. In baking, salt is added to control the rate of fermentation in bread dough.
It also is used to strengthen the gluten the elastic protein-water complex in certain doughs and as a flavor enhancer, such as a topping on baked goods. The food-processing category also contains grain mill products.
These products consist of milling flour and rice and manufacturing cereal breakfast food and blended or prepared flour. Salt is also used a seasoning agent, e. Sodium chloride is used in veterinary medicine as emesis -causing agent. It is given as warm saturated solution. Emesis can also be caused by pharyngeal placement of small amount of plain salt or salt crystals. Sodium chloride is used together with water as one of the primary solutions for intravenous therapy.
Nasal spray often contains a saline solution. Sodium chloride is the principal extinguishing agent in fire extinguishers Met-L-X, Super D used on combustible metal fires such as magnesium, potassium, sodium, and NaK alloys Class D.
Thermoplastic powder is added to the mixture, along with waterproofing metal stearates and anti-caking materials tricalcium phosphate to form the extinguishing agent. When it is applied to the fire, the salt acts like a heat sink, dissipating heat from the fire, and also forms an oxygen-excluding crust to smother the fire.
The plastic additive melts and helps the crust maintain its integrity until the burning metal cools below its ignition temperature. This type of extinguisher was invented in the late s as a cartridge-operated unit, although stored pressure versions are now popular. Common sizes are 30 pounds 14 kg portable and pounds kg wheeled. Since at least medieval times, people have used salt as a cleansing agent rubbed on household surfaces.
It is also used in many brands of shampoo , toothpaste and popularly to de-ice driveways and patches of ice. They were therefore used in optical components windows and prisms operating in that spectral range, where few non-absorbing alternatives exist and where requirements for absence of microscopic inhomogeneities are less strict than in the visible range. While inexpensive, NaCl crystals are soft and hygroscopic — when exposed to the ambient air, they gradually cover with "frost".
This limits application of NaCl to dry environments, vacuum sealed assembly areas or for short-term uses such as prototyping. Nowadays materials like zinc selenide ZnSe , which are stronger mechanically and are less sensitive to moisture, are used instead of NaCl for the infrared spectral range.
In solid sodium chloride, each ion is surrounded by six ions of the opposite charge as expected on electrostatic grounds. The surrounding ions are located at the vertices of a regular octahedron. In the language of close-packing , the larger chloride ions are arranged in a cubic array whereas the smaller sodium ions fill all the cubic gaps octahedral voids between them.
This same basic structure is found in many other compounds and is commonly known as the halite or rock-salt crystal structure. It can be represented as a face-centered cubic fcc lattice with a two-atom basis or as two interpenetrating face centered cubic lattices.
The first atom is located at each lattice point, and the second atom is located halfway between lattice points along the fcc unit cell edge. Thermal conductivity of sodium chloride as a function of temperature has a maximum of 2.
It also decreases with doping. Atomic-resolution real-time video imaging allows visualization of the initial stage of crystal nucleation of sodium chloride.
The chloride ions are also strongly solvated, each being surrounded by an average of 6 molecules of water. In other words, NaCl has no effect on system pH  in diluted solutions where the effects of ionic strength and activity coefficients are negligible.