Ascites is a condition in which fluid collects in spaces within your abdomen. As fluid collects in the abdomen, it can affect your lungs, kidneys, and other organs. Ascites causes abdominal pain, swelling, nausea, vomiting, and other difficulties. Aug 05, †Ј Ascites occurs when fluid accumulates in the abdomen. This buildup occurs between two membrane layers that together make up the peritoneum, a smooth sac that contains the bodyТs organs. It is usual.
Please understand that our phone lines must be clear for shat medical care needs. When this changes, we will update this website. Our vaccine supply remains limited. Ascites is a condition in which fluid collects in spaces within your abdomen. If severe, ascites may be painful. The problem may keep you from moving around comfortably.
Ascites can set the stage for an infection in your abdomen. Fluid may also move into your chest and surround your lungs. This makes it hard to breathe.
The most common cause of ascites is cirrhosis of the liver. Drinking too much whah is one of the most common causes of cirrhosis of the liver. Different types of cancer can also cause this condition.
Ascites caused by cancer most often occur with advanced or recurrent cancer. Ascites may also be caused by other problems such as heart conditions, dialysis, low protein levels, and infection. Your healthcare provider will do a physical exam and ask about your symptoms. You may also have tests such as:. A number of steps may help ease your ascites. Your healthcare provider may tell you to:. Ascites can make eating, drinking, and moving around difficult. It can also make it hard to what is in ascites fluid. Ascites can lead to abdominal infections, which may cause kidney failure.
It can also cause umbilical or inguinal hernias. Certain steps to help you avoid cirrhosis of the flui and cancer can prevent ascites. These include:. Be sure to follow your healthcare provider's advice for lowering your salt intake.
You'll need to do this even if you're taking diuretic drugs to reduce fluid in your body. Also, weigh yourself daily and call your healthcare provider if you gain too much weight. Health Home Conditions and Diseases. What causes ascites? What are the symptoms of ascites? These are symptoms of ascites: Swelling in the abdomen What is minus 4 degrees celsius in fahrenheit gain Sense of fullness Bloating Sense of heaviness Nausea or indigestion Vomiting Swelling in the lower legs Shortness of breath Hemorrhoids How is ascites diagnosed?
You may also have tests such as: Fluid sample. A sample of fluid from your abdomen may be taken using a needle. This fluid will be checked for signs of disease, such as cancer or an infection. This test may help point to the cause of the ascites. Your healthcare provider may request images of the inside of your abdomen using ultrasound, MRI, or a CT scan. An MRI creates images using a magnetic field and radiofrequency energy. A CT scan creates computerized images using X-rays.
Whay is ascites treated? Your healthcare provider may tell you to: Cut back on your salt intake. Your healthcare provider or a dietitian can show you how to follow a how to obtain press credentials diet. Avoid ascitea substitutes that contain potassium. This is because some medicines used in treating ascites can cause your potassium levels to rise.
Cut back on the amount of fluids you drink. Stop drinking alcohol. Take diuretic medicines to how to make windmill project reduce the fluid in your body. In certain cases, your doctor may need to remove large amounts of fluid from your abdomen through a needle. This may be done if you have trouble breathing or the diuretic is not working. In very complicated situations, you may need to have a special procedure in radiology called What can cause a dog to lose hair. In this procedure, a connection is made inside the liver between the blood vessels to ease the high pressure causing ascites.
What are the complications of ascites? Can ascites be prevented? These include: Stop drinking alcohol. Maintain a healthy weight. Exercise regularly. Stop smoking. Limit salt in your diet. Practice safe sex to decrease your chance of getting hepatitis. Do not use recreational drugs to decrease your chance of getting hepatitis.
Living with ascites Be sure to follow your healthcare provider's fulid for lowering your salt intake. Key points Ascites is a condition in which fluid collects in spaces within your abdomen.
As fluid collects in the abdomen, it can affect your lungs, kidneys, and other organs. Ascihes causes abdominal pain, swelling, nausea, vomiting, and other difficulties. Stopping all alcohol intake, maintaining a healthy weight, exercising, not smoking, and limiting salt intake can help prevent cirrhosis or cancer that may lead to ascites. Next steps Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare provider: Before your visit, write down questions you fludi answered.
Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your provider tells you. At the visit, write down the names of new medicines, treatments, or tests, and any new instructions your provider gives you. If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that visit. Know how you can contact your provider if you have questions.
Ascites is the buildup of an abnormal amount of fluid inside the abdomen (belly). This is a common problem in patients with cirrhosis (scarring) of the liver. Approximately 80% of patients with cirrhosis of the liver develop ascites. Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Mar 18, †Ј What is the medical definition of ascites? The medical definition of ascites is an abnormal accumulation of fluid within the (peritoneal) cavity. Ascites is caused by a variety of diseases and conditions, for example, cirrhosis of the liver, cancer within .
Ascites is the abnormal build-up of fluid in the abdomen. In the developed world , the most common cause is liver cirrhosis. Treatment often involves a low-salt diet , medication such as diuretics , and draining the fluid. Mild ascites is hard to notice, but severe ascites leads to abdominal distension. People with ascites generally will complain of progressive abdominal heaviness and pressure as well as shortness of breath due to mechanical impingement on the diaphragm.
Ascites is detected with physical examination of the abdomen by visible bulging of the flanks in the reclining person "flank bulging" , " shifting dullness " difference in percussion note in the flanks that shifts when the person is turned on the side , or in massive ascites, with a "fluid thrill" or " fluid wave " tapping or pushing on one side will generate a wave-like effect through the fluid that can be felt in the opposite side of the abdomen.
Other signs of ascites may be present due to its underlying cause. For instance, in portal hypertension perhaps due to cirrhosis or fibrosis of the liver people may also complain of leg swelling, bruising, gynecomastia , hematemesis , or mental changes due to encephalopathy. Those with ascites due to cancer peritoneal carcinomatosis may complain of chronic fatigue or weight loss.
Those with ascites due to heart failure may also complain of shortness of breath as well as wheezing and exercise intolerance. Complications may include spontaneous bacterial peritonitis , hepatorenal syndrome , and thrombosis. Portal vein thrombosis and splenic vein thrombosis involve clotting of blood affects the hepatic portal vein or varices associated with splenic vein. This can lead to portal hypertension and reduction in blood flow.
When a person with liver cirrhosis is suffering from thrombosis, it is not possible to perform a liver transplant, unless the thrombosis is very minor. In case of minor thrombosis, there are some chances of survival using cadaveric liver transplant.
Routine complete blood count CBC , basic metabolic profile, liver enzymes , and coagulation should be performed. Most experts recommend a diagnostic paracentesis be performed if the ascites is new or if the person with ascites is being admitted to the hospital. The fluid is then reviewed for its gross appearance, protein level, albumin , and cell counts red and white.
Additional tests will be performed if indicated such as microbiological culture , Gram stain and cytopathology. The serum-ascites albumin gradient SAAG is probably a better discriminant than older measures transudate versus exudate for the causes of ascites. Ultrasound investigation is often performed prior to attempts to remove fluid from the abdomen. This may reveal the size and shape of the abdominal organs, and Doppler studies may show the direction of flow in the portal vein, as well as detecting Budd-Chiari syndrome thrombosis of the hepatic vein and portal vein thrombosis.
Additionally, the sonographer can make an estimation of the amount of ascitic fluid, and difficult-to-drain ascites may be drained under ultrasound guidance. An abdominal CT scan is a more accurate alternate to reveal abdominal organ structure and morphology.
Ascites exists in three grades: . Ascitic fluid can accumulate as a transudate or an exudate. Amounts of up to 35 liters are possible. Clinically, the most useful measure is the difference between ascitic and serum albumin concentrations. Portal hypertension plays an important role in the production of ascites by raising capillary hydrostatic pressure within the splanchnic bed.
Regardless of the cause, sequestration of fluid within the abdomen leads to additional fluid retention by the kidneys due to stimulatory effect on blood pressure hormones, notably aldosterone. The sympathetic nervous system is also activated, and renin production is increased due to decreased perfusion of the kidney. Extreme disruption of the renal blood flow can lead to hepatorenal syndrome.
Other complications of ascites include spontaneous bacterial peritonitis SBP , due to decreased antibacterial factors in the ascitic fluid such as complement. Ascites is generally treated while an underlying cause is sought, in order to prevent complications, relieve symptoms, and prevent further progression.
In people with mild ascites, therapy is usually as an outpatient. The goal is weight loss of no more than 1. Salt restriction is the initial treatment, which allows diuresis production of urine since the person now has more fluid than salt concentration. Since salt restriction is the basic concept in treatment, and aldosterone is one of the hormones that acts to increase salt retention, a medication that counteracts aldosterone should be sought.
Spironolactone or other distal-tubule diuretics such as triamterene or amiloride is the drug of choice since they block the aldosterone receptor in the collecting tubule. This choice has been confirmed in a randomized controlled trial. The ratio of reduces risks of potassium imbalance. Monitoring diuresis : Diuresis can be monitored by weighing the person daily. Dosage is increased until a negative sodium balance occurs.
If the person exhibits a resistance or poor response to diuretic therapy, ultrafiltration or aquapheresis may be needed to achieve adequate control of fluid retention and congestion. The use of such mechanical methods of fluid removal can produce meaningful clinical benefits in people with diuretic resistance and may restore responsiveness to conventional doses of diuretics.
In those with severe tense ascites, therapeutic paracentesis may be needed in addition to medical treatments listed above.
Ascites that is refractory to medical therapy is considered an indication for liver transplantation. In a minority of people with advanced cirrhosis that have recurrent ascites, shunts may be used. Typical shunts used are portacaval shunt , peritoneovenous shunt , and the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt TIPS.
However, none of these shunts has been shown to extend life expectancy, and are considered to be bridges to liver transplantation. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials by the international Cochrane Collaboration concluded that "TIPS was more effective at removing ascites as compared with paracentesis Exudative ascites generally does not respond to manipulation of the salt balance or diuretic therapy.
Repeated paracentesis and treatment of the underlying cause is the mainstay of treatment. It has been suggested that ascites was seen as a punishment especially for oath -breakers among the Proto-Indo-Europeans. A similar curse dates to the Kassite dynasty 12th century BC. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Abnormal build-up of fluid in the abdomen.
Medical condition. Main article: Paracentesis. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 14 December Lexico Dictionaries English. Retrieved 26 October Merck Manuals Professional Edition. May Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease. PMC PMID Retrieved December 14, Oxford textbook of medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN Results of a randomized study".
A safe alternative therapy". New England Journal of Medicine. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology. Journal of Cardiac Failure. Mineral and Electrolyte Metabolism. Wiesbaden, Signs and symptoms relating to the human digestive system or abdomen. Abdominal mass Hepatosplenomegaly Hepatomegaly Splenomegaly. HowshipЧRomberg sign Hannington-Kiff sign. Disorders of volume state. Categories : Symptoms and signs: Digestive system and abdomen.
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Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons. Peritoneal cavity fluid, peritoneal fluid excess, hydroperitoneum, abdominal dropsy .
The abdomen of a person with cirrhosis that has resulted in massive ascites and prominent superficial veins. Increased abdominal size, increased weight, abdominal discomfort, shortness of breath . Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis , hepatorenal syndrome , low blood sodium  .
Liver cirrhosis , cancer , heart failure , tuberculosis , pancreatitis , blockage of the hepatic vein . Physical exam , ultrasound , CT scan . Low-salt diet , medications, draining the fluid .
Spironolactone , furosemide . GND : MA : ,