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Cartographer definition is - one that makes maps. Did You Know? Cartography (/ k ??r ? t ? ? r ? f i /; from Greek ?????? chartes, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and ??????? graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making and using euro-caspian.coming science, aesthetics, and technique, cartography builds on the premise that reality (or an imagined reality) can be modeled in ways that communicate spatial information effectively.
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Basic GIS Terminology and Concepts
Colorful definition, abounding in color: In their tartans, the Scots guard made a colorful array. See more. Surveyor definition, a person whose occupation is surveying. See more. Cartography definition is - the science or art of making maps. How to use cartography in a sentence.
He is most renowned for creating the world map based on a new projection which represented sailing courses of constant bearing rhumb lines as straight lines—an innovation that is still employed in nautical charts. Mercator was one of the pioneers of cartography and is widely considered the most notable figure of Netherlandish school of cartography in its golden age approximately s—s. In his own day, he was a notable as maker of globes and scientific instruments.
In addition, he had interests in theology, philosophy, history, mathematics and geomagnetism. He was also an accomplished engraver and calligrapher. Unlike other great scholars of the age he travelled little and his knowledge of geography came from his library of over one thousand books and maps, from his visitors and from his vast correspondence in six languages with other scholars, statesmen, travellers, merchants and seamen.
Mercator's early maps were in large formats suitable for wall mounting but in the second half of his life, he produced over new regional maps in a smaller format suitable for binding into his Atlas of This was the first appearance of the word Atlas in reference to a book of maps.
However, Mercator used it as a neologism for a treatise Cosmologia on the creation, history and description of the universe, not simply a collection of maps.
He chose the word as a commemoration of the Titan Atlas , "King of Mauretania", whom he considered to be the first great geographer. A large part of Mercator's income came from sales of his terrestrial and celestial globes.
For sixty years they were considered the finest in the world, and were sold in such great numbers that there are many surviving examples. This was a substantial enterprise involving the manufacture of the spheres, printing the gores , building substantial stands, packing and distributing all over Europe. He was also renowned for his scientific instruments, particularly his astrolabes and astronomical rings used to study the geometry of astronomy and astrology.
Mercator wrote on geography, philosophy, chronology and theology. All of the wall maps were engraved with copious text on the region concerned. As an example the famous world map of is inscribed with over five thousand words in fifteen legends. The Atlas has about pages of maps and illustrated title pages but a greater number of pages are devoted to his account of the creation of the universe and descriptions of all the countries portrayed. His table of chronology ran to some pages fixing the dates from the time of creation of earthly dynasties , major political and military events, volcanic eruptions , earthquakes and eclipses.
He also wrote on the gospels and the Old Testament. Mercator was a devout Christian born into a Catholic family at a time when Martin Luther 's Protestantism was gaining ground. He never declared himself as a Lutheran but he was clearly sympathetic and he was accused of heresy by Catholic authorities; after six months in prison he was released unscathed.
This period of persecution is probably the major factor in his move from Catholic Leuven Louvain to a more tolerant Duisburg , in the Holy Roman Empire, where he lived for the last thirty years of his life.
Walter Ghim, Mercator's friend and first biographer, describes him as sober in his behaviour, yet cheerful and witty in company, and never more happy than in debate with other scholars. Above all he was pious and studious until his dying days.
Gerardus Mercator was born Geert or Gerard de Kremer or Cremer , the seventh child of Hubert de Kremer and his wife Emerance in Rupelmonde , Flanders, a small village to the southwest of Antwerp , all of which lay in the fiefdom of Habsburg Netherlands.
At the time of the birth they were visiting Hubert's brother or uncle [f] Gisbert de Kremer. Their stay in Rupelmonde was brief and within six months they returned to Gangelt and there Mercator spent his earliest childhood until the age of six. After Hubert's death in , Gisbert became Mercator's guardian. Hoping that Mercator might follow him into the priesthood, he sent the year-old Geert to the famous school of the Brethren of the Common Life at 's-Hertogenbosch [j] in the Duchy of Brabant. The Brotherhood and the school had been founded by the charismatic Geert Groote who placed great emphasis on study of the Bible and, at the same time, expressed disapproval of the dogmas of the church, both facets of the new "heresies" of Martin Luther propounded only a few years earlier in Mercator would follow similar precepts later in life—with problematic outcomes.
During his time at the school the headmaster was Georgius Macropedius , and under his guidance Geert would study the Bible, the trivium Latin , logic and rhetoric and classics such as the philosophy of Aristotle , the natural history of Pliny and the geography of Ptolemy.
The Brethren were renowned for their scriptorium [k] and here Mercator might have encountered the italic script which he employed in his later work. The brethren were also renowned for their thoroughness and discipline, well attested by Erasmus who had attended the school forty years before Mercator.
From a famous school, Mercator moved to the famous University of Leuven , where his full Latin name appears in the matriculation records for Antoine Perrenot. The general first degree for Magister centred on the teaching of philosophy, theology and Greek under the conservative Scholasticism which gave prime place to the authority of Aristotle. Mercator graduated Magister in The normal progress for an able Magister was to go on to further study in one of the four faculties at Leuven: Theology, Medicine, Canon Law and Roman Law.
Gisbert might have hoped that Mercator would go further in theology and train for the priesthood but Mercator did not: like many twenty year old young men he was having his first serious doubts. The problem was the contradiction between the authority of Aristotle and his own biblical study and scientific observations, particularly in relation to the creation and description of the world.
Such doubt was heresy at the University and it is quite possible that he had already said enough in classroom disputations to come to the notice of the authorities: [m] fortunately he did not put his sentiments into print. He left Leuven for Antwerp, [p] there to devote his time to contemplation of philosophy.
This period of his life is clouded in uncertainty. During this period Mercator was in contact with the Franciscan friar Monachus who lived in the monastery of Mechelen. Mercator must have been impressed by Monachus, his map collection and the famous globe that he had prepared for Jean Carondelet , the principal advisor of Charles V.
These encounters may well have provided the stimulus to put aside his problems with theology and commit himself to geography. Later he would say, "Since my youth, geography has been for me the primary subject of study. I liked not only the description of the Earth but the structure of the whole machinery of the world. Towards the end of , the twenty-two-year-old Mercator arrived back in Leuven and threw himself into the study of geography, mathematics and astronomy under the guidance of Gemma Frisius.
Gemma had designed some of the mathematical instruments used in these studies and Mercator soon become adept in the skills of their manufacture: practical skills of working in brass, mathematical skills for calculation of scales and engraving skills to produce the finished work.
Gemma and Gaspar Van der Heyden had completed a terrestrial globe in but by they were planning a new globe embodying the latest geographical discoveries. The globe was a combined effort: Gemma researched the content, Van der Heyden engraved the geography and Mercator engraved the text, including the cartouche which exhibited his own name in public for the first time.
The globe was finished in and its celestial counterpart appeared one year later. These widely admired globes were costly and their wide sales provided Mercator an income which, together with that from mathematical instruments and from teaching, allowed him to marry and establish a home. His marriage to Barbara Schellekens was in September and Arnold, the first of their six children, was born a year later.
The arrival of Mercator on the cartographic scene would have been noted by the cognoscenti who purchased Gemma's globe—the professors, rich merchants, prelates, aristocrats and courtiers of the emperor Charles V at nearby Brussels. The commissions and patronage of such wealthy individuals would provide an important source of income throughout his life. His connection with this world of privilege was facilitated by his fellow student Antoine Perrenot, soon to be appointed Bishop of Arras , and Antoine's father, Nicholas Perrenot , the Chancellor of Charles V.
Working alongside Gemma whilst they were producing the globes, Mercator would have witnessed the process of progressing geography: obtaining previous maps, comparing and collating their content, studying geographical texts and seeking new information from correspondents, merchants, pilgrims, travellers and seamen.
He put his newly learned talents to work in a burst of productivity. In , aged only 25, he established his reputation with a map of the Holy Land which was researched, engraved, printed and partly published by himself. A year later, in , he produced his first map of the world , usually referred to as Orbis Imago.
All four works were received with acclaim   and they sold in large numbers. The dedications of three of these works witness Mercator's access to influential patrons: the Holy Land was dedicated to Franciscus van Cranevelt who sat on the Great Council of Mechelen , the map of Flanders was dedicated to the Emperor himself and the globe was dedicated to Nicholas Perrenot, the emperor's chief advisor.
The dedicatee of the world map was more surprising: Johannes Drosius, a fellow student who, as an unorthodox priest, may well have been suspected of Lutheran heresy. In between these works he found time to write Literarum latinarum , a small instruction manual on the italic script. Mercator first applied the italic script to the globe of Gemma Frisius and thereafter to all his works, with ever-increasing elegance. The title page of this work is an illustration of the decorative style he developed.
In , the thirty-year-old must have been feeling confident about his future prospects when he suffered two major interruptions to his life. First, Leuven was besieged by the troops of the Duke of Cleves, a Lutheran sympathiser who, with French support, was set on exploiting unrest in the Low Countries to his own ends. The siege was lifted but the financial losses to the town and its traders, including Mercator, were great. The second interruption was potentially deadly: the Inquisition called.
At no time in his life did Mercator claim to be a Lutheran but there are many hints that he had sympathies in that direction. As a child, called Geert, he was surrounded by adults who were possibly followers of Geert Groote , who placed meditation, contemplation and biblical study over ritual and liturgy—and who also founded the school of the Brethren of the Common Life at 's-Hertogenbosch. As an adult Mercator had family connections to Molanus , a religious reformer who would later have to flee Leuven.
Also he was a close friend and correspondent of Philip Melanchthon , one of the principal Lutheran reformers. His visits to the free thinking Franciscans in Mechelen may have attracted the attention of the theologians at the university , amongst whom were two senior figures of the Inquisition , Jacobus Latomus and Ruard Tapper.
The words of the latter on the death of heretics convey the atmosphere of that time: [w]. It is no great matter whether those that die on this account be guilty or innocent, provided we terrify the people by these examples; which generally succeeds best, when persons eminent for learning, riches, nobility or high stations, are thus sacrificed.
It may well have been these Inquisitors who, in , decided that Mercator was eminent enough to be sacrificed. All were arrested except Mercator who had left Leuven for Rupelmonde on business concerning the estate of his recently deceased uncle Gisbert. That made matters worse for he was now classified as a fugitive who, by fleeing arrest, had proved his own guilt. Mercator was apprehended in Rupelmonde and imprisoned in the castle.
He was accused of suspicious correspondence with the Franciscan friars in Mechelen but no incriminating writings were uncovered in his home or at the friary in Mechelen.
At the same time his well placed friends petitioned on his behalf, [x] but whether his friend Antoine Perrenot was helpful is unknown: Perrenot, as a bishop, would have to support the activities of the Inquisition. After seven months Mercator was released for lack of evidence against him but others on the list suffered torture and execution: two men were burnt at the stake, another was beheaded and two women were entombed alive. Mercator never committed any of his prison experiences to paper; all he would say  was that he had suffered an "unjust persecution".
For the rest of his time in Leuven his religious thoughts were kept to himself and he turned back to his work.
His brush with the Inquisition did not affect his relationship with the court and Nicholas Perrenot recommended him to the emperor as a maker of superb instruments. The outcome was an Imperial order for globes , compasses , astrolabe and astronomical rings. Sadly they were soon destroyed in the course of the Emperor's military ventures and Mercator had to construct a second set, now lost. It proved to be a vast task and he, perfectionist that he was, seemed unable to cut short his ever-expanding researches and publish: as a result it was to be another ten years before the map appeared.
In Mercator was visited by the young nineteen year old John Dee who, on completion of his undergraduate studies in Cambridge , " went beyond the seas to speak and confer with some learned men ". In Dee returned to Leuven Louvain in Dee's text and registered as a student: for three years he was constantly in Mercator's company.
Forty years later they were still co-operating, Dee using Mercator's maps to convince the English court to finance Martin Frobisher 's expeditions and Mercator still avidly seeking information of new territories.
The final success in Leuven was the celestial globe, the partner of his terrestrial globe of The records of the Plantin Press show that several hundred  pairs of globes were sold before the end of the century despite their high price—in they sold at 25 carolus guilders for a pair.