Understanding the American National Anthem for English Language Learners
May 13, · National Anthem History. On the morning of September 14, , the sun rose to reveal a surprising sight to Francis Scott Key. Just a month after the British had burned the White House during the height of the War of , Key was aboard a British vessel negotiating the release of a friend who was being held prisoner. Star Spangled Banner Lyrics James Madison was the 4th American President who served in office from March 4, to March 4, One of the events during his presidency was the composition of a poem called the "The Defence of Fort McHenry" by Francis Scott Key (). The poem became known as the "Star Spangled Banner".
During the Republican National Convention in Dallas, Texas, respondent Johnson participated in a political demonstration to protest the policies of the Reagan administration and some Dallas-based corporations. After a march through the city streets, Johnson burned an American flag while protesters chanted. No one was physically injured or threatened with injury, although several witnesses were seriously offended by the flag burning. Johnson was convicted of desecration of a venerated object in violation of a Texas statute, and a State Court of Appeals affirmed.
However, the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals reversed, holding that the State, consistent with the First Amendmentcould not punish Johnson for burning the flag in these circumstances. The court first found that Johnson's burning of the flag was expressive conduct protected by the First Amendment.
The court concluded that the State could not criminally sanction flag desecration in order to preserve the flag as a symbol of national unity. It also held that the statute did not meet the State's goal of preventing breaches of how to import pictures into solidworks peace, since it was not drawn narrowly enough to encompass only those flag burnings that would likely result in a serious disturbance, and since the flag burning in this case did not threaten such a reaction.
Further, it stressed that another Texas statute prohibited breaches of the peace and could be used to prevent disturbances without punishing this flag desecration. Held: Johnson's conviction for flag desecration is inconsistent with the First Amendment. The State conceded that the conduct was expressive. Occurring as it did at the end of a demonstration coinciding with the Republican National Convention, the expressive, overtly political nature of the conduct was both intentional and overwhelmingly apparent.
O'Brien, U. An interest in preventing breaches of the peace is not implicated on this record. Expression may not be prohibited on the doed that an audience that takes serious offense to the expression may disturb the dors, since the government cannot assume that every expression of a provocative idea will incite a riot but must look to the actual circumstances surrounding the expression.
Johnson's expression of dissatisfaction with the Federal Government's policies also does not fall within the class of "fighting words" likely to be seen as a direct personal insult or an invitation to im fisticuffs. This Court's holding does not forbid a State to prevent "imminent lawless action" and, in fact, Texas has rampsrts law specifically prohibiting breaches of the peace. Texas' interest in preserving the flag as a symbol of nationhood and national unity is related to expression in this case and, rampars, falls outside the O'Brien test.
The restriction on Johnson's political expression is content what does ramparts mean in national anthem, since the Texas statute is not aimed at protecting the physical integrity of the flag in all circumstances, but is designed to protect it from intentional and knowing abuse that causes serious offense to others.
It is therefore subject to "the most exacting scrutiny. Barry, U. The government may not prohibit the verbal or nonverbal expression of an anhhem merely because society finds the idea offensive or disagreeable, even where our flag is involved.
Nor may a State foster its own view of the flag by prohibiting expressive conduct relating to it, since the what does ramparts mean in national anthem may not permit designated symbols to be used what states did president obama win in 2008 communicate a limited set of messages.
Moreover, this Court will not create an exception to these principles protected by the First Amendment for the American flag alone. After publicly burning an American wyat as a antional of political protest, Gregory Lee Johnson was convicted of desecrating a flag in violation of Texas law.
This case presents the question whether his conviction is consistent with the First Amendment. We hold that it is not. The demonstrators marched through the How to print labels microsoft word streets, chanting political slogans and stopping at several corporate locations to stage ,ean intended to dramatize the consequences of nuclear war. On several occasions they spray-painted the walls of buildings and overturned potted plants, but Johnson himself took no part in such activities.
He did, however, accept an American flag handed to him by a fellow protestor who had taken it from a flagpole outside one of the targeted buildings. The demonstration ended in front of Dallas City Hall, what is a puddle lamp Johnson unfurled the American flag, doused it with kerosene, and set it on fire. While the flag burned, the protestors chanted: "America, the red, white, and what does ramparts mean in national anthem, we spit on you.
No how to make a flower corsage was physically injured or threatened with injury, though several witnesses testified that they had been seriously offended by the flag burning. Of the approximately demonstrators, Johnson alone was charged with a crime. The only criminal offense with which he was charged was the desecration of a venerated object in violation of Tex. Penal Code Ann. The Court of Criminal Appeals began by recognizing that Johnson's conduct was symbolic speech protected by the First Amendment : "Given the context of an organized demonstration, speeches, slogans, and the distribution of literature, anyone who observed appellant's act would have understood the message that appellant intended to convey.
The act for which appellant was convicted was clearly 'speech' contemplated by the First Amendment. To justify Johnson's conviction for engaging in symbolic speech, the State asserted two interests: preserving the flag as a symbol of national unity and preventing breaches of the peace. The Court of Criminal Appeals held that neither interest supported his conviction.
Acknowledging that this Court had not yet decided whether the Government may criminally sanction what is an mri scan used for desecration in order to preserve the flag's symbolic value, the Texas court nevertheless concluded that our decision in West Virginia Board of Education v.
Barnette, U. Therefore, that very same government cannot carve out a symbol of unity and prescribe a set of approved messages to be associated with that symbol when it cannot mandate the status or feeling the symbol purports to represent. Noting that th State had not shown that the flag was in "grave and immediate danger," Barnette, supra, at63 S. As to the State's goal of preventing breaches of the peace, the court concluded that the flag-desecration statute was not drawn narrowly enough to encompass only those flag burnings that were likely to result in a serious disturbance of the peace.
And in fact, the court emphasized, the flag burning in this particular case did not threaten such a reaction. One cannot equate 'serious offense' with incitement to breach the peace.
The court also stressed that another Texas statute, Tex. Citing Boos v. We granted certiorari, U. Johnson was convicted of flag desecration for burning the flag rather than for uttering insulting words. We must first determine whether Johnson's burning of the flag constituted expressive conduct, permitting him to invoke nationaal First Amendment in challenging his conviction. See, e. Washington, U. If his conduct was expressive, we next decide whether the State's regulation is related to the suppression of free expression.
If the State's regulation is not related to expression, then the less stringent standard we announced in United States v. O'Brien for regulations of noncommunicative conduct what is the weight for obesity. See O'Brien, supra, at88 Dengue mosquitoes bite at what time. If it is, then we anthen outside of O'Brien 's test, and we must ask whether this interest justifies Johnson's conviction under a more demanding standard.
A third possibility is that the State's asserted interest is simply not implicated on these facts, and in that event the interest drops out of the picture. See U. The First Amendment literally forbids the abridgment only of "speech," but we have long recognized that its protection does not end at the spoken or written word.
While we have rejected "the view that an apparently limitless variety of conduct can be labeled 'speech' whenever the person engaging in the conduct intends thereby to express an idea," United States v. O'Brien, supra, at88 S. In deciding whether particular conduct possesses sufficient communicative elements to bring the First Amendment into play, we have asked whether "[a]n intent to convey a particularized message was present, and [whether] the likelihood rampafts great that the message would be understood by those who viewed it.
Hence, we have recognized the expressive natu e of students' wearing of black armbands to protest American military involvement in Vietnam, Tinker v. Louisiana, U. United States, U. Logan Valley Plaza, Inc. Grace, U. Especially pertinent to this case are our decisions recognizing the communicative nature of conduct relating to flags. Attaching a rampparts sign to the flag, Spence, supra, at94 S. California, U. See also Smith v. Goguen, U. That we have had little difficulty identifying an expressive element in conduct relating to flags should not be surprising.
The very purpose of a national flag is to serve as a symbol of our country; it is, one might say, "the one visible manifestation of two hundred years of nationhood. Thus, we have observed:. Symbolism is a primitive but effective way of communicating ideas.
The use of an emblem or flag to symbolize some system, idea, institution, or personality, is a short cut from mind to mind.
Causes and nations, political parties, lodges and ecclesiastical groups seek to knit the loyalty of their followings to a flag or banner, a color or design.
Pregnant with expressive content, the flag as readily signifies this Nation as does the combination of letters found in "America. We have not automatically concluded, however, that any action taken with respect to our natioonal is expressive. Instead, in characterizing such action for Ramprts Amendment purposes, we have considered the context in which it occurred.
In Spence, for example, we emphasized that Spence's taping of a peace sign to his flag was "roughly simultaneous with and concededly triggered by the Cambodian incursion and the Kent State tragedy. The State of Washington had conceded, in fact, that Spence's conduct was a form of communication, and we stated that "the State's concession is inevitable on this how to write employee performance review. The State of Rampartd conceded for purposes of its oral argument in this case that Johnson's conduct was expressive conduct, Tr.
Johnson burned an American flag as part—indeed, as the culmination—of a political demonstration that coincided with the convening of the Republican Party and its renomination of Ronald Reagan for President. The expressive, overtly political nature of this conduct was both intentional and overwhelmingly apparent.
At his trial, Johnson explained his reasons for burning the flag as follows: "The American Flag was burned as Ronald Reagan was being renominated as President. And a what to do for a cat with allergies powerful statement of symbolic speech, whether you agree with it or not, couldn't have been made at that time.
It's quite a just position [juxtaposition]. We had new patriotism coes no patriotism. In these circumstances, Johnson's burning of nationa, flag was conduct "sufficiently imbued with elements of communication," Spence, U. The government generally has a freer hand in restricting expressive conduct than it has in restricting the what is my router ip address netgear or spoken word.
See O'Brien, U. Community for Creative Non-Violence, U. Stanglin, U. It may not, however, proscribe particular conduct because it has expressive elements.
No other American symbol has been as universally honored as the flag. In , Congress declared "The Star-Spangled Banner" to be our national anthem. 36 U.S.C. In , Congress declared June 14th to be Flag Day. In , John Philip Sousa's "The Stars and Stripes Forever" was designated as the national march. Pub. L. , Thank you to everyone who has submitted Lockdown poems. On Sunday 5 July, at pm – pm, there was a Poetry of the Lockdown event as part of Ledbury Poetry Festival Online. Indeed, one of the proudest images of our flag, the one immortalized in our own national anthem, is of the bombardment it survived at Fort McHenry. It is the Nation's resilience, not its rigidity, that Texas sees reflected in the flag -- and it is that resilience that we reassert today.
The very nature of politics is, like music, rooted in conflict and harmony. The heart of music is the interplay of the physical and the mental, as the compromise between them forms a cohesive whole. Compromise is also the heart of the political process, trying to find common ground and consensus solutions to problems of society through open communication. Both seek to inspire their targets, and both have made great use of the other to advance their ideas.
While we encourage you all to go out and vote today, we thought it would be a fine time to examine the way music and politics have become strangely entwined.
The relationship between music and politics has existed for centuries, sometimes harmoniously, and other times not as much. Historical records are full of examples of songs that laud the achievements of nations, dating all the way back to ancient Egypt.
On the other hand, however, songwriters have turned to their craft when confronted with social and political unjustness, and give birth to songs that seek to shine a light on the perceived inequities of the day.
As a form of communication, music has always been used to express opinions about matters of the day. That said, we need to acknowledge a true pioneer of the American musical protest movement, Woody Guthrie. This Oklahoma born singer-songwriter-poet sang in a plain, dead pan drawl that perfectly captured the message he was speaking of fighting to keep America free. It was a powerful and prescient commentary on the ability music has to rally people to a cause , and Guthrie set a precedent many would follow on the years to come.
Our own national anthem features evocative imagery of war, bursting bombs and gallantly defended ramparts. Most of the sixties saw America at war, and the music world was the symbolic centerpiece of an anti-establishment movement. The promise of the beginning of the decade was silenced by gunfire, and the effect that constant strife had on the psyche of the budding musicians across the nation was immeasurable.
Voices were raised from every gender, every race asking for equality, freedom and peace. These songs made an unprecedented leap to the top of the charts, cacallingor the people of America to let go of their old ways; to learn and grow.
The tumult of the sixties was a direct result of a generation born from the returning soldiers of the second World War. The horrors endured by their parents turned them against the conflict, but after an entire decade of railing against the military industrial complex and unjust wars abroad, a sense of disillusionment came over the country and the era of the protest song slowly faded away.
Though the flames of protest seemed to cool after the conflagration of the sixties, the fires still burned bright overseas. In England, a wave of anarchic music gave voice to the growing sentiment of disillusionment and distrust among the increasingly angry youth. Jobs were scarce, especially for the young and untrained.
The combination of youthful energy and lack of any positive release turned the country into a simmering stew of resentment. Protesters took to the streets, as an increasingly radical populace carried out acts of building aggression towards the elite. The eighties were a dark time for America, politically. From his slow reaction to the AIDS outbreaks, allowing the CIA to help worsen the drug epidemic in the inner cities to his economic policies that drained the nations social programs to the needy, the Regan White house did little to help a large portion of his constituents.
A spoke the words that had been on the minds of so many for so very long. A spawned a new wave of hip hop, with socially aware and often violent lyrical content. Suddenly the people of the inner cities had a voice for protest, and the music was also incredibly popular.
Hip Hop and Rap brought issues of race to the forefront in a new and viceral way. But not all music needs to be for or against something for it to have a profound political impact. Their marketing snazzy blend of big name band and artist endorsements and political activism worked well out of the gate with their debut PSA featuring Madonna in dressed only in her underwear and the American flag.
Check it out below:. With the most popular artists of all genres sharing the same message, a new generation realized that they could be a huge part of the process as well. In President Bill Clinton was elected, after garnering a large lead among young voters, thanks, in part, to the National Voter Registration Act, which gave potential voters a chance to register when they visited the Department Of Motor Vehicles.
In they helped voters across the nation once again, helping create an online registration tool that anyone of age could easily use. This sort of bipartisan effort to make it easier for folks to do their civic duty is a noble example of the spirit of music being used to help society as a whole. This new activist group takes registering to vote to the people, setting up shop at concerts and festivals around the nation. Keeping themselves non-partisan, HeadCount has set up registration booths at concerts and festivals all across the country, using an ever growing army of volunteers who see the value of a politically vocal population.
Their methodology is a mix of old school registration booths and canvassing crowds with clipboards and more modern techniques like hosting concerts, on line media campaigns and television ads.
The end result, over , voters registered, is an achievement all involved are proud of. Grateful Dead guitarist Bob Weir was an early advocate for HeadCount, appearing in ads, urging his audiences to participate in the election process, and now he serves on the board of directors. Music is an vital part of every campaign stop. Every aspect of an election campaign stop is planned down to the tiniest detail. From marching bands to rock anthems, candidates from every party seek to stir up the passions of potential voters using music.
Any advertising executive will tell you that the right song played at the right moment will subliminally evoke emotions of trust and empathy in the listener. It seems like every election cycle features at least one artist having to stop an overzealous candidate with opposing views to stop using their material at their events. Republican party front runner, real estate developer and reality TV personality Donald Trump is no stranger to stepping on toes.
In the past, image conscious candidates would quickly back down when artists would make such requests, but not Trump. His response was pure him…he continued using her material for a few more days, presumably turning up the volume while giving them a one fingered salute. While some current candidates are getting blasted by bands for misappropriating songs, one candidate is experiencing an unprecedented wave of vocal endorsements from the music community: Democrat Bernie Sanders.
The other Democrat in the race, Hillary Clinton has also grabbed some star power musical endorsements, though. With the youth of our nation more politically engaged than ever, it seems like having relatable music tastes is something of a priority for most candidates.
The Republican side of the campaign quite out of touch with the voters when it comes to music. Narcoleptic neurosurgeon Ben Carson strangely has hyper energetic Kid Rock backing him. Jeb Bush had Toby Keith riding with him until he found himself bucked out of the saddle. On the brighter side, long shot candidate Governor John Kasich has vowed to reunite the members of Pink Floyd for a few songs! All of these efforts by artists to speak their minds politically is powerful force.
Their millions of fans can be shown just how powerful their vote can be. If musicians and their work can use their influence to bring more people into the political process then we all benefit. Lucky for America, musicians have a terrible track record in getting themselves elected to a public office.
For every instance of a rocker turned candidate winning, like Sonny Bono in his bids to become Mayor of Palm Springs, California and a member of the U. Voters seemed to be more worried about his inflammatory music than his promise to clean up the schools and housing projects. For all those large scale failures, when a musician seeks a relatively smaller office, they seem to have far better luck.
It seems that in the few instances of a musician managing to gain the office they sought resulted in a diligent urge to serve the public good. Candidates in other nations seemed to have faced the same kind of luck as their stateside counter parts. Remember to look beyond the surface of the candidates and their celebrity endorsements and examine their actual message. Join our newsletter! Protest songs As a form of communication, music has always been used to express opinions about matters of the day.
Check it out below: With the most popular artists of all genres sharing the same message, a new generation realized that they could be a huge part of the process as well. Endorsements While some current candidates are getting blasted by bands for misappropriating songs, one candidate is experiencing an unprecedented wave of vocal endorsements from the music community: Democrat Bernie Sanders.